In today's business relations, it's a small world after all. As more companies turn towards global markets, professionals are finding themselves in foreign locales, wheeling and dealing like never before. However, the key to effective communication between countries is an understanding of each other's culture, especially a working knowledge of how each society conveys meaning.
First used by author Edward Hall, the expressions "high-context" and "low-context" are labels denoting inherent cultural differences between societies. High-context and low-context communication refer to how much speakers rely on things other than words to convey meaning. Hall states that in communication, individuals face many more sensory cues than they are able to fully process. In each culture, members have been supplied with specific "filters" that allow them to focus only on what society has deemed important. In general, cultures that favor low-context communication will pay more attention to the literal meanings of words than to the context surrounding them.
It is important to remember that every individual uses both high-context and low-context communication; it is not simply a matter of choosing one over the other. Often, the types of relationships we have with others and our circumstances will dictate the extent to which we rely more on literal or implied meanings.
To better understand high-context and low-context communication, ask the following:
- Do I recognize implied messages from others, and am I aware of the verbal and nonverbal cues that let me understand the speaker's meaning? (High-Context)
- Do I "let my words speak for themselves?" Do I prefer to be more direct, relying on what is explicitly stated in my speech? (Low-Context)
Novelist Amy Tan describes the differences in cultural communication this way: "An American business executive may say, 'Let's make a deal,' and the Chinese manager may reply, 'Is your son interested in learning about your widget business?' Each to his or her own purpose, each with his or her own linguistic path."
When individuals from high-context and low-context cultures collaborate, there are often difficulties that occur during the exchange of information. These problems can be separated into differences concerning "direction", "quantity" and "quality." For example, employees from high-context cultures like China and France share very specific and extensive information with their "in-group members" (good friends, families, close coworkers, etc). In comparison, low-context cultures like the United States and Germany prefer to limit communication to smaller, more select groups of people, sharing only that information that is necessary.
Hall: "Most of the information is either in the physical context or initialized in the person."
- Knowledge is situational, relational
- Less is verbally explicit or written or formally expressed
- More internalized understandings of what is communicated (ex: "in-jokes")
- Often used in long-term, well-established relationships
- Decisions and activities focus on personal face-to-face communication, often around a central, authoritative figure
- Strong awareness of who is accepted/belongs vs. "outsiders"
- Relationships depend on trust, build up slowly, and are stable.
- How things get done depends on relationships with people and attention to the group process.
- One's identity is rooted in groups (family, culture, work).
- High use of nonverbal elements; voice tone, facial expression, gestures, and eye movement carry significant parts of a conversation.
- Verbal message is indirect; one talks around the point and embellishes it.
- Communication is seen as an art form-a way of engaging someone.
- Disagreement is personalized. One is sensitive to conflict expressed in another's nonverbal communication. Conflict either must be solved before work can progress or must be avoided.
- Multiple sources of information are used. Thinking is deductive and proceeds from general to specific.
- Learning occurs by first observing others as they model or demonstrate and then practicing.
- Groups are preferred for learning and problem-solving.
- Accuracy is valued. How well something is learned is important.
High-context cultures are more common in non-Western countries with low racial diversity. Cultures where the group is valued over the individual promote group reliance. High-context cultures have a strong sense of tradition and history, and change little over time, such as tribal and native societies. For instance, the French assume that the listener knows everything. Therefore, they may think that Americans think they are stupid because Americans will habitually explain everything to their counterparts.
Former president Jimmy Carter understood the importance of high-context communication with his colleagues from Israel and Egypt during the peace talks at Camp David. When Prime Minister Begin was about to leave the unsatisfactory negotiations, Carter presented him with pictures of the three heads of state, with the names of each of Begin's grandchildren written on the photographs. The prime minister repeated the names of his grandchildren out loud as he looked at the pictures, reflecting on the importance of the peace negotiations to his grandchildren's futures. Carter recognized that a high-context reference to future generations would induce the prime minister to return to the negotiations.
Hall: "The mass of information is vested in the explicit code [message]."
- Rule oriented
- More knowledge is public, external, and accessible.
- Shorter duration of communications
- Knowledge is transferable
- Task-centered. Decisions and activities focus on what needs to be done and the division of responsibilities.
- Relationships begin and end quickly. Many people can be inside one's circle; circle's boundary is not clear.
- Things get done by following procedures and paying attention to the goal.
- One's identity is rooted in oneself and one's accomplishments.
- Social structure is decentralized; responsibility goes further down (is not concentrated at the top).
- Message is carried more by words than by nonverbal means.
- Verbal message is direct; one spells things out exactly.
- Communication is seen as a way of exchanging information, ideas, and opinions.
- Disagreement is depersonalized. One withdraws from conflict with another and gets on with the task. Focus is on rational solutions, not personal ones.
- One source of information is used to develop knowledge.
- Thinking is inductive and proceeds from specific to general. Focus is on detail.
- Learning occurs by following explicit directions and explanations of others.
- An individual orientation is preferred for learning and problem-solving.
- Speed is valued. How efficiently something is learned is important.
An individual from a high context culture has to adapt, and/or be accommodated when shifting to a low context culture. High-context cultures expect small close-knit groups, where professional and personal life is interrelated. Therefore, a high-context individual is more likely to ask questions than attempt to work out a solution independently.
Remember that in business, communication is everything, so make sure you know not only what to say, but also how to say it.
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.
rima islam on March 17, 2018:
the way you write the tipics, it's really understable...
chacha kitalo on May 05, 2017:
Your explanation is very well but am want to asking about the countries which have low context cultural characteristics?
Ferhan Patel from Montreal, Canada on April 27, 2016:
Very interesting way of looking in things. Thanks for posting!
joaneika on August 27, 2014:
this is very good but I don't need that
mqjeffrey (author) on January 08, 2013:
My pleasure, thank you for reading!
Rythem on January 08, 2013:
"mqjeffrey" Thank you very much for the simplified explanation... this saved me lot of time... :-)
Dream on June 08, 2012:
very very interesting,thank you very much for these helpful ideas.
destiny on May 31, 2012:
thanks a lot, this really help me in my project
mqjeffrey (author) on May 30, 2012:
Hello, thanks for reading. There is an example stated in the text, but to further clarify:
A low-context style of communication would be stating more directly what you want or feel (the words and what you say is important): "I am unhappy with how that meeting went. We were not prepared with the most current data sets."
High-context communication is more reliant on environmental cues (how you say something and where): After an unsatisfacotry meeting, the boss invites an employee to their office. They do not offer them a seat and after a long pause says: "Do you think that could have gone better?"
Hope this helps... :)
than men on May 30, 2012:
thanks for your writing, but i need to give some example to understand clearly.
International Student on November 29, 2011:
Your post is very useful for me especially my assignment. I am really appreciated your work. Thank you very much
rohanshetty on October 27, 2011:
thanx 4m INDIA....:)
Blanca on April 04, 2011:
I'm very lucky to read the articai,thank you !
alena on March 15, 2011:
tracy on March 07, 2011:
thanks for the info...........
Lala on February 07, 2011:
Well done! You help me a lot with my paper
IRFAN RIZVI on December 08, 2010:
Very well summaries, better then my text book which I am studying. Thanks.
Didar Hayytov on November 11, 2010:
Thanks. I was looking for it
Maximum A on October 21, 2010:
thanks so much for your info! really helps.
wd on September 30, 2010:
Phil Hudson on May 04, 2010:
Great post, many thanks!
mysam on May 01, 2010:
Think I can use some of this stuff for a paper I'm writing. This is interesting.
mqjeffrey (author) on April 20, 2010:
Thank you everyone for reading and for your thoughtful comments. I have been away from HubPages for too long... (traveling will do that :)
Again, muchas gracias!
S. Ceesay on February 12, 2010:
This is an excellent masterpiece. I found it very useful in my assignment. Thanks.
WebMarketingRebel on November 03, 2009:
Thank you for your in depth comparison of communications approaches between high context and low context styles.
I'm wondering as we communicate more and more with our global audiences, will we organically start to develop a more hybrid or inclusive approach? Any thoughts?
Problem on October 02, 2009:
receptionist on September 18, 2009:
This is a nice hub you got here.. Lots of great stuffs for aspiring writers. Mind if you check my hubs? I just need your opinion about the content of my hubs... Thanks
mqjeffrey (author) on August 20, 2009:
From an article on "Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences" By Michelle LeBaron
ac on August 20, 2009:
where did you get the quote from amy tan?
Delima on August 02, 2009:
hey thanks for the interesting article. Its helping me towards my assignment!
Reynolds_Writing from Atlanta, Georgia on April 21, 2009:
This is a very interesting topic.. I had never heard of the concept of low and high context. Learned something new on HubPages today!
ontheway on April 02, 2009:
High Context vs Low Context Communication
very good, I support you, come on , welcome to my hub!
Myron Tay from Singapore on February 03, 2009:
Note to self: Google 'Edward Hall'
mqjeffrey (author) on December 24, 2008:
Think of this site as a "Blog." Let me know if you have anymore questions. Thanks for reading.
NK on December 24, 2008:
How do I site any of the information on this website for a paper?
bill on February 26, 2008:
Thanks for the good review of Hall's stuff I will share some of this with my class on cross cultural management
thekingjohann from Seattle on December 27, 2007:
You just read my mind, way to go!!!! you are a real cool mr.
Ronasa23 on October 16, 2007:
am glad to c any one join me.