How to Convey Complex Arguments With Ease and Simplicity in Public Speaking

Updated on August 10, 2019
Matt Ainsworth profile image

Matt is a Corporate Trainer in Japan, helping to transform and evolve the nation's business communication culture across the private sector.

Simplify Your Complex Arguments the Easy Way

Let us show you how to utilise an easy to understand framework, which will allow you to build a complex, yet clear and logical structure to convey your main and supporting arguments.

What's the difference between a simple and more complex idea? That's probably dependent on how long and sophisticated your opinion is. For instance, anything with 3 to 4 or more paragraphs or arguments would warrant a more complex perspective. Anything less could be considered a simple argument.

Again we will incorporate the two frameworks from our last guide, that is PREP and the summary method. However, their key difference will be our focus on developing stronger opening statements and more convincing closing arguments. Moreover, we will look at constructing more effective and detailed content into the body as well.

Let's Recap Our PREP Framework

P = Point - Your key idea or concept

R = Reason - This is the reason or arguments you have supporting your wonderfully profound thoughts.

E = Example/Experience/Evidence - Based on things that you have researched, witnessed or know. These kinds of imagery or facts can be useful in helping to illustrate your arguments with greater ease and clarity.

P = Point - Once again, your opportunity to re-emphasise your position and summarise any key ideas you need to convey.

Lets recap PREP and Summary Method

So just to recap from our previous post in relation to our 2 simple frameworks.

1: PREP looks like this:

P = Point - Your key idea or concept

R = Reason - This is the reason or arguments you have supporting your wonderfully profound thoughts.

E = Example/Experience/Evidence - Based on things that you have researched, witnessed or know. These kinds of imagery or facts can be useful in helping to illustrate your arguments with greater ease and clarity.

P = Point - Once again, your opportunity to re-emphasise your position and summarise any key ideas you need to convey.

2: The summary method looks like this:

Main idea or concept

- Supporting idea 1 - example 1

- Supporting idea 2 - example 2

- Supporting idea 3 - example 3

So, using these structures as the basis of organising our thoughts, we will now look at how to apply these to more complex and sophisticated arguments.

A Summary of this Post's Complex Argument

Tourism in Japan is expanding:

- Global Sporting Events - RWC 2019/Olympics 2020

- Booming Social Media platforms - Instagram

- Easing immigration restrictions - Asian neighbours like China

Capturing Initial Interest with an Engaging Opening Statement

More complex ideas and concepts ideally require equally beefed up and effective opening statement. This introductory paragraph will present the main crux of your position, along with your underlying reasons. However, the reasons too will be introduced with some basic context to help identify how they relate.

To break it down into simple elements, your main opening passage will include:

  • Your main idea as a solid and profound statement
  • Your supporting thoughts + basic context of how they connect with your thinking (this could be multiple sentences, relative to the distinct amount of reasons you wish to include)

This will then lead into the first sentence of your body or the beginning of your first reason. From an order and sequencing perspective, the first reason you introduce in your opening statement should correspond with the starting paragraph of your body. This is both logical and makes sense from the audience standpoint also.

Let's explore the topic of 'Tourism in Japan' utilising the basic framework of the summary method.

Tourism in Japan is expanding:

- Global Sporting Events - RWC 2019/Olympics 2020

- Booming Social Media platforms - Instagram

- Easing immigration restrictions - Asian neighbours like China

Alternatively, we can also use PREP to help us organise our thoughts for the same topic:

P - Tourism in Japan is expanding:

R1 - Global Sporting Events / E1 - RWC 2019/Olympics 2020

R2 - Booming Social Media platforms / E2 - Instagram

R3 - Easing immigration restrictions / E3 - Asian neighbours like China

P - That's why tourism in Japan is expanding

Now let's transform that into a more compelling argument based on the main elements we identified in one of the frameworks above. It would look something like:

(Opening Statement)

Tourism in Japan has been booming recently, due to some key developments. Japan is soon to play host to some major global sporting events, like the Rugby World Cup 2019 and 2020 Olympic Games. Thriving social media platforms have also spread the allure and charm of the nation to the world. Finally, the easing of visa restrictions for a range of Asian neighbours has spurred a holiday rush. Let's explore these aspects in further detail and how they have assisted to build up Japan's image as a hot holiday destination.

We would then transition to the body of this argument by commencing with our initial reason. That is, upcoming global sporting events being held in Japan would look something like the following:

(Body)

First of all, Japan will play host to some major international sporting events ...

Let's Recap the Summary Method

Main idea or concept

- Supporting idea 1 - example 1

- Supporting idea 2 - example 2

- Supporting idea 3 - example 3

Developing a Solid and Accurate Set of Arguments

Articulating the content of your argument coherently and with precision is your primary objective in this section. Using the summary method framework, let's try to expand on our first supporting argument for the 'Tourism in Japan' topic. If we use the same topic, with some added examples we have the following:

Tourism in Japan is expanding:

- Global Sporting Events - RWC/Olympics

- Booming Social Media platforms

- Easing immigration restrictions

In the first sentence of your body's opening paragraph, you want to present the main premise of your supporting idea. In your subsequent deliberations, you want to explore details that relate directly to this concept, it could be in the form of examples, evidence or personal experience. Then you want to convey how this supporting reason connects back to your main idea.

Let's demonstrate a sample opening paragraph we would use in our body below:

First of all, Japan will play host to some major international sporting events later this year and in the middle of next year. In September, Japan will host the widely anticipated Rugby World Cup 2019. Every year the sport continues to grow in popularity, and so this event is expected to draw unprecedented crowds. In 2020, Tokyo will then host the most prestigious international sporting event, the Olympic Games. Through the global exposure that both of these events bring, Japan hopes to show off the appeal of its stunning beauty and rich culture to the world.

Next, let's expand on our second point if we refer back to our summary:

Tourism in Japan is expanding:

- Global Sporting Events

- Booming Social Media platforms - Instagram

- Easing immigration restrictions

So, again let's develop this argument into something more convincing, that provides more detailed ideas and links back to our key argument.

Some Social Media platforms have grown remarkably quick in the past few years, especially as international tourism takes off. Instagram is a prime example of how visual media is taking over our lives, and influencing our behaviour. Similarly, it has now become a photographic encyclopedia featuring Japan's untouched and historical beauty. As a result, the allure of Japan has reached the corners of the globe promoting it as a world-class vacation spot.

The Conclusive and Robust Closing Declaration

The final conclusion or closing summary is perhaps the most critical. Basically, it allows you to collate all your ideas together and connect them back to your main opinion. Our objective is to re-assert our position, connect our supporting reasons and provide a powerful final statement to persuade our audience.

Let's refer back to our current idea framework using the summary method.

Tourism in Japan is expanding:

- Global Sporting Events

- Booming Social Media platforms

- Easing immigration restrictions

So the aim here is to re-affirm our key message 'why tourism is expanding in Japan'. Then, we will be incorporating our core supporting elements and demonstrating how they relate to our main concept. Finally, we will end the paragraph with a strong and sweeping declaration that paints a powerful image in our listener's minds.

Ultimately, let's combine the above summary into a decisive closing paragraph:

In conclusion, it is clear that Japan's tourism industry is expanding rapidly, underpinned by some key factors. It's hosting of the upcoming global sporting spectacles like the Rugby World Cup 2019 and Olympics in 202 have gained international interest. The rise of popular Social Media Apps like Instagram have also captured people's fascination with the dream of Japan travel. Additionally, the recent easing of immigration restrictions for many of the nation's surrounding neighbours has contributed to the jump in visitation levels from abroad. Consequently, I am sure these aspects will continue to have a lasting impact on the increase in tourists, at least for the short-term future, but potentially the mid to long-term horizon too.

Final Thoughts

Hopefully, this post has helped provide more clarity about how you organise more complex and sophisticated ideas, and develop these into more compelling and powerful arguments or statements. The key behind all of these frameworks is simplicity and not overcomplicating your articulation or thought processes. Furthermore, you can use these frameworks as the basis of vocalising your opinions with greater coherency and accuracy too. If any of these guides were helpful, we would love to hear from you in the comments section. Alternatively, if you have other ideas or suggestions feel free to provide them below.

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