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Things to Know When the Economy Falls Apart

Rochelle has experience with wild critters and gardening adventures while living the simple life in a rural area for 20 years.

On an Autumn afternoon, there are apples, pears, sunflower seeds, summer squash, winter squash, pumpkins and tomatoes.

On an Autumn afternoon, there are apples, pears, sunflower seeds, summer squash, winter squash, pumpkins and tomatoes.

Will the Good Times Last?

Could a global economic disaster someday force us into a lifestyle more like that of our great-great grandparents?

People in earlier generations grew their own food, traded locally with neighbors and depended on personal talents and skills to supply their everyday needs. The economy of many small countries still operates in a similar way.

On the other hand, modern people of industrialized nations with advanced technology and complex economies a have lost touch with basic pioneer skills. They could be hit hard by a financial collapse. Many of us do not realize how dependent on technology we have become.

Ironically, people in "poor" less developed areas with an agricultural base will be better prepared for any drastic change. They already know how to live without the advantages and luxuries we take for granted.

The First Necessity is Information

Those who plan ahead could survive an economic storm with old-fashioned hard work and know-how.

  • Do you know how to grow and preserve food?
  • Can you make and repair practical necessities like clothing, tools, and furniture?
  • Do you know first aid and simple home remedies?
  • Do you know how to survive without your usual sources of fuel and power for heat, light, transportation, and cooking?
  • Do you have at least ONE skill that can be used to make things or provide a service that other people need?

Get it in Writing

Books about "old" technologies>

Books about "old" technologies>

By the Book

If you do not already have basic skills, it is time to expand your library with information about old-fashioned technologies.

A basic cookbook, a gardening reference, a first aid manual and even a how-to book for basic building techniques could come in handy.

There are several books offering useful advice on all of these subjects and more. It might be a good idea to have some of them on your shelf. If your power is out, you won't have Google.

Build Your Own Library in a Notebook

Another way to build a skills library is to collect information from internet sources while you have access. The internet has a huge amount of free and helpful content, that will help you put together your own resource notebook full of information.

1. Gather supplies for your basics book:

  • A large three-ring binder
  • A three-hole punch and a stapler
  • Divider pages with tabs, preferably with pockets.
  • A highlighter pen, Page protector sleeves (optional)
Make your own resource notebook from HubPages articles.

Make your own resource notebook from HubPages articles.

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Read More From Toughnickel

2. Decide What Information You May Need

Your notebook could include information on ways to grow, prepare and preserve food, using alternative energy, sewing, carpentry, craft skills, keeping chickens, cooking outdoors, making soap, making candles, home remedies and any homesteading skills that used to be common.

You might not need to know all of these skills, but even just having a few would make it easier for you to barter with neighbors.

Why should you print out pages when they are always available on the net? What if your power goes out, or you can't afford internet service? You should have a printed copy that's easy to reference.

Assembling your "Basics" book

After you search for topics and articles that might be helpful….

  • Label your dividers with topics.
  • Print out your informative articles.
  • Use a three-hole punch on your printed sheets or slide the sheets into page protectors.
  • Highlight articles to show tools and supplies you might need for each activity.

Once you have your information organized in a way that is easy for you to access, there are other things you can do to make that information easier to use.

Working Towards Self-Sufficiency, Step by Step.

Tools and Supplies

Your notebook binder will give you an idea of what tools and supplies you may need to use the knowledge you have accumulated.

For instance, if you know you can grow corn or other grain, or if you know you can gather acorns for making bread, you could make flour by pounding kernels between stones, as was done in ages past. With that thought in mind, you might also want to buy a hand-cranked grinder to make that process easier.

If you want to make soap, getting some molds or a pan that will let you make several bars at once.

What Kinds of Information Do You Need?

If you need to cook over an open fire, some cast iron pans or kettles would be practical, as well as indestructible.

If you need to provide for yourself and your family, you will want to search out general topics on like "Frugal living", "bartering" and "do-it-yourself".

You will find plenty of articles about planting fruit trees, vegetables, and herbs as well as canning, drying and preserving your harvest.

There are many articles on candle-making, making soap, metal crafts and leather-work. There are scores of articles about sewing and knitting, as well as several about weaving and even spinning.

There are hundreds about cooking, including making simple staple ingredients like cheese, homemade bread (even using acorn flour), vinegar, beer, and wine.

Home Remedies and first aid articles also are easy to find.

Gardening and information about farm animals and livestock, including sustainable agriculture and farming, abound.

If you want to find out about beekeeping or raising goats and chickens you will find plenty of information.

There are a couple thousand sites about fishing. Other subjects include building furniture, sharpening tools, irrigation systems, alternative fuel. You can search out valuable information pertaining to any of these subjects.

In addition, there are many about living off-grid including how to live without a refrigerator as well as number of articles pertaining to homesteading topics.

Now, let's get started.


Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on April 29, 2018:

We moved out of the city 20 years ago. Retirement can be a busy time when you have a few acres to look after. Thanks for your comments.

Tom Cornett from Ohio on April 29, 2018:

Hubs like these are among my favorites. I always learn something new. Wife, Tammy and I bought a 5 acre mini farm 4 years ago. Books and the internet have helped guide us. I grew up in the country and worked on farms but I still have a lot more to learn.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on April 18, 2018:

Thanks for the comment, Glenn. Living in a rural area, I know that some of these arts and skills are still practiced, but there was a time when almost everyone could do almost everything with their own two hands.

Glenn Stok from Long Island, NY on April 18, 2018:

This is a very educational article Rochelle, and I feel it’s extremely rquired reading. Many people will be lost if they don’t give some thought to survival without the necessities and the technology that we are very dependent on.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on August 06, 2015:

Absolutely, peachpurple. We have to keep things sensible.

peachy from Home Sweet Home on August 06, 2015:

When economy I'd bad you gotta be frugal

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on June 06, 2015:

a lot of people agree with you, Agvulpes. If more people were better prepared, we would all be better off.

Peter from Australia on June 05, 2015:

As a child of the 'Great Depression' I sure can relate to a lot of the great advise you offer in this 'evergreen' Hub!

I can remember the Coolgardie cooler that my Dad built to keep the food fresh !

I also believe that we are not far off another GFC ?

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 22, 2014:

My mom also survived the Depression, the War, as well as an earthquake. I believe she knew how to do everything. She could sew anything from underwear to wedding dresses, I still have beautiful sweaters she knitted and she was good at repairing and fixing things in general. OK-- she wasn't a gourmet cook, but she knew how to put a meal on the table.

I'll bet a lot of people don't even know about turning collars or what side-to-middle means. I appreciate your comment very much.

Kate Swanson from Sydney on November 22, 2014:

This is an excellent point. It's amazing how little people know about basic skills - it seems like most people can't even sew on a button any more!

I see that even in women in their fifties and sixties. I was a late baby (my mother was over 40), and having an older mother means that I learned many things that women with younger moms missed out on.

My mother grew up in the Depression and was a young woman during the war, so she learned how to make do - and taught me. I have never had to sides-to-middle my sheets or turn the collars on shirts, I don't knit or crochet - but I know how. It's a pity these skills aren't being passed on today.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on May 13, 2014:

There are lots of articles on HP with those themes-- print some out, so yu'll have them handy,

Destiny Rose on May 12, 2014:

I want to learn how to can so I can grow my own veggies and store them. I think that would be a good idea , hopefully I get around to it before everything goes haywire haha :) nice hub

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on April 01, 2014:

Thanks for the comment, LaryssaGeorge. It's amazing what you can learn from other Hubbers.

Laryssa from Indiana on March 31, 2014:

Preparation is key. Thanks for all the tips!

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on July 10, 2013:

Thanks, Katnance.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on May 03, 2013:

Thanks for commenting, faythef. There is a huge amount of information on HP.

Faythe Payne from USA on May 02, 2013:

great hub ..with lots of helpful tips..One never knows what the future will help to be up and more..also sharing...

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 20, 2013:

Yes, it can still be done-- but it's especially nice to have solar power ... and the internet.

LongTimeMother from Australia on March 20, 2013:

lol. I'm already living the lifestyle of my great-great-grandparents in many ways. Off the grid, growing my own food, trading with neighbours. Heck, I can even grind my own grain. :)

I'll bet my ancestors would have loved solar power. Daily life doesn't come to a halt when the sun goes down.

I have to confess, I love spending time in the kitchen now much more than I ever did when every appliance had a noisy motor. There's something very therapeutic about hand-making everything.

Voted up. :)

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 16, 2013:

Hopefully you are right, B.Leekley, but I know that when the power goes out here, I don't have access. Thanks for reading.

Brian Leekley from Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA on March 15, 2013:

No need to worry, since we will always have the World Wide Web via search engines like Google to answer all questions in any emergency. Unless the unthinkable happens ....

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 14, 2013:

Thanks, day4all, Glad you liked it.

Fredena Moore from South United States on March 14, 2013:

Thanks for the reminders, very helpful!

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 14, 2013:

Yes, there are tons of helpful ideas on HP. Thanks for your comments, Elizabeth Mara.

Elizabeth Mara from New Hampshire on March 14, 2013:

Hello, Rochelle,

Thank you for a great hub! I turned to the internet during a bad winter storm to learn ways I could heat my home if I lost power. All the while I surfed and read, I hoped I wouldn't loose electricity until I had an answer! Preparation is key to facing any emergency calmly, and your notebook idea is both encouraging and engaging. I had found a few ideas here and there online, and you've directed me to great resources right here at 'home', too~ thank you so much!

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 13, 2013:

Thanks, tmouse 2. I guess the binder idea came when I realized I had a pile of print-outs that could be easily categorized.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 13, 2013:

I appreciate the comment, Taleb80.

tmouse1 on March 13, 2013:

I have to admit that my survival skills are lacking. I can grow a good garden, and I have begun a more frugal lifestyle in anticipation of a worsening economy, but I think I would be in a bit of a pickle if the rug is pulled out from under me quickly.

That is why I loved the binder idea! Why didn't I think of that? I am normally a well organized person so I'm a bit surprised that it did not occur to me to compile and save essential information.

Definite thumbs up! Thanks!

KatNance on March 12, 2013:

these skills can be very helpful.- I try to make as much food as I can from scratch.i love to learn . enjoyed the hub

Taleb AlDris on March 12, 2013:

I find your hub very helpful.

For two years I print most of useful hubs I read. Thanks for sharing.

For frugal living I have this hub "9 ways to save your money & have less Grocery Budget", hope it helps.

Thanks again.

KatNance on March 12, 2013:

Knowledge is power! Great Hub..thanks I really enjoyed reading it

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 12, 2013:

Being resourceful and self-reliant is great, buf if you are not you can can at least read the books to learn something. Thankd for commenting KatNance.

KatNance on March 12, 2013:

it's good to be prepared and have a little know-how on the things our ancestors used to do in the old days. we need to learn how to farm and learn how to do,,and grow our own stuff

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 12, 2013:

You are right, iguidenetwork. And if you don't have the know how, you should at least know how to find it. Thank you for your comments.

iguidenetwork from Austin, TX on March 12, 2013:

Thanks for the valuable survival tips. It's hard to do without the conveniences we're used to. However, it's good to be prepared and have a little know-how on the things our ancestors used to do in the old days. Plus it will be good for the body and mind too. Voted up and useful. :)

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 12, 2013:

Than you for your comments Princessa, Healthy meals and Solaras. Our 3 hens produce more eggs than I can use, (and chickens are also entertaining). Spring is coming and I am looking forward to the vegetable garden, too.

Barbara Fitzgerald from Georgia on March 12, 2013:

To Princessa - not only do you spend less, but home grown vegetables taste considerably better than the store ones. Especially tomatoes!

healthy meals from Europe on March 12, 2013:

Knowledge is power! I will soon start to keep my own chickens, I have been learning how to do it and I only need to prepare a suitable place in our courtyard to keep them.

Wendy Iturrizaga from France on March 12, 2013:

Very good ideas. I found that since we started growing our own vegetables and fruits we are spending considerably less on grocery bills.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 12, 2013:

Thank you, Solaras. I appreciate the comment

Barbara Fitzgerald from Georgia on March 12, 2013:

Great article - Thumbs up! I'll start my notebook shortly!

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 11, 2013:

Yes, Alice-Evon, there are many benefits aside from the economic ones. Thanks for mentioning the other up-side. Your comments are appreciated.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 11, 2013:

You are right, pramodgokhale. Some countries have had hard times more recently, and still remember. We have had it good in the US for a long time, and I think most people have forgotten.

Alise- Evon on March 11, 2013:

Besides being prepared for possible hard times, knowing these skills can be good for your health- I try to make as much food as I can from scratch, wildcraft herbs for tea and medicine, and do a bit of foraging. This gives me more control over what ingredients go into my food (food coloring? don't think so, etc.), and also makes me find local suppliers or local people with skills that compliment my own. It is nice to be more connected to your community in this way, also.

Thanks for the useful information, especially about other Hubbers who write about these things.

pramodgokhale from Pune( India) on March 10, 2013:

This article is really a warning and guidance how to survive.If economy collapses as you mentioned " Pioneer Skills" Older generations who faced world wars ,famines ,They were mentally tough to take on such challenges.

Off-Grid and without refrigerator , can not imagine.In India new middle class is emerging and but able to absorb shocks but next generation we do not know whether they can sustain?

Thank you

pramod gokhale

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 09, 2013:

Thank you for the comment, vote and share, torrilyn. Much appreciated.

torrilynn on March 09, 2013:

Hi RochelleFrank,

thanks for the useful tips and techniques about

what to know when the economy falls

very useful information.

Voted up and shared.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 09, 2013:

Thank you, truthfornow. Hopefully, the internet will always be available, but nothing in life is absolutely certain.

NateB11: HubPages is a huge resource of basic skills and knowledge. I appreciate your kind complimentary comments.

Nathan Bernardo from California, United States of America on March 09, 2013:

Very useful and necessary information, and I never thought about the great resource that Hubpages is for this kind of information. I think this kind of knowledge is going to be necessary eventually; for one thing, our economic system is not sustainable in the long-run, and the long-run is getting shorter. Definitely we need to look into these alternative and basic ways of living and these valuable skills. I like how you laid out how to organize the information, and the practical items necessary for survival in the collapse.Thanks for the insight and the knowledge.

Marie Hurt from New Orleans, LA on March 08, 2013:

Very helpful for when you can't go online. We get so used to looking things up on the computer, but often in a disaster situation you can't use your cell or a computer. Keeping information handy and accessible in an emergency will be invaluable. Great ideas. I don't think we are prepared at all to weather an economic disaster.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 08, 2013:

From reading some of your hubs and comments, Sherry Hewins, I think you would have a head start. I have only had brief camping experiences that did not involve pipes or sewers of any kind. Modern plumbing conveniences are certainly among civilization's most taken-for-granted attributes.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 08, 2013:

I guess thinking about how you could feed yourself, IS food for thought. Hopefully we won't have to go that far. Thank you for your comment, rebeccamealey.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on March 08, 2013:

Actually, I am quite an optimistic sort, AudreyHowitt. I don't think I will see us having to resort to older technologies, all together-- but It is reassuring to know that I would have some idea of how to deal with it. That thought, actually takes away much of the scariness.

Sherry Hewins from Sierra Foothills, CA on March 08, 2013:

I hope it never comes to that Rochelle, but I think if it does I will have a head start on a lot of Americans. When I was younger I lived a very rustic lifestyle, even without electricity and having to haul water. It's been a long time, and I would not like to go back to that, but I do know how. Thanks for an important reminder.

Rebecca Mealey from Northeastern Georgia, USA on March 08, 2013:

Gosh, it is great to think ahead and be prepared for anything, this surely does do that! Hopefully, we have learned from past generations and don't have to go THAT for. This is a good food-for-thought article.

Audrey Howitt from California on March 08, 2013:

This is kind of scary actually--the idea that we may need to gather ourselves in the face of some sort of global meltdown--but practical nonetheless

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on January 23, 2012:

Thank you , again. Enlydia.

Enlydia Listener from trailer in the country on January 23, 2012:

I love this kind of is so practical...great stuff!

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on December 12, 2011:

Search the term "purseless" and you'll find it.

Rachelle Williams from Tempe, AZ on December 12, 2011:

Really? Ok, I'm going to peruse your hubs for that one, I have a massive collection of purses, but now I am about to put them all down...

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on December 12, 2011:

When we moved to a rural area I began to cut back on shopping a lot-- not many stores here.

As for purses, I wrote a hub about why I haven't carried one in years.

Rachelle Williams from Tempe, AZ on December 12, 2011:

Timely advice here Rochelle. I decided a while ago to move toward a more frugal lifestyle, but ...I did not realize how much I would miss hitting the mall every weekend and slapping a Coach purse on the old Visa.. (I know, ridiculous, huh?)

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on December 08, 2011:

2uesday-- it is hard to think about, but if more people do think about it, things will be better for all of us. This country-- and many others-- were built on self-sufficiency.

It's foolish to think that someone else, especially government, will always be there to help.

2uesday on December 07, 2011:

I had to smile as I read this because I can already do some of the things you mention and enjoy them. But the thought of the economy collapsing is awful and I cannot imagine how people would cope. This did make an interesting but worrying read.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 08, 2011:

Thanks, Peggy W. Having a garden and doing some of those other things can be enjoyable as well. Being able to do something useful with your hands is good for mental health as well, I think.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 08, 2011:

@ the lyricwriter: It may be time to bring back some of those lost arts.

@ Nigam Shah --Yes, keeping yourself strong and healthy is always a good idea.

@ D.Juris Steser-- thanks for the link. Glad you liked the notebook idea. There is so much good information to be searched out. .. and welcome to HubPages.

@ Jerilee All those old-fashioned ideas are seeming more useful each day. Having those books adds a sense of security and they might become a lot more valuable than the dollars we spend for them.

Jerilee Wei from United States on November 08, 2011:

I'm finding more and more that those survival techniques I was taught both at home by my grandmother and home edc classes becoming a Godsend in everyday life. I liked the notebook idea. I also recommend assembling a library while print books are still cheap and plentiful. Great hub!

D.Juris Stetser from South Dakota on November 07, 2011:

Fantastic information! The economy has been the focus of several articles I've posted on one of my blogs, and I linked to your article. I think you're "spot-on" with your preparation-notebook idea. I'm totally new. Just registered today actually, and so glad I found your article. Hope I can learn to Hub even HALF as well as you. Thanks again.

Nigam Shah from India on November 07, 2011:

I guess that along with knowledge people should also start exercising as if there comes a time when what Rochelle says becomes true then people who are not in a good shape will face a lot of trouble.

Like you might know how to plough the land but if your body is not capable of performing the task than all that knowledge becomes useless.

so i hope people start exercising soon.

gr8 hub by the way,Rochelle.

Richard Ricky Hale from West Virginia on November 06, 2011:

I agree. We have almost lost those skills in today's society. I agree with your outlook. It doesn't look good. Thanks for the advice and tips Rochelle.

Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on November 06, 2011:

As you said, our grandparents and great grandparents were better prepared than most of us today to weather economic collapses like what happened in the Great Depression. More people farmed back in those days and during both world wars so many people had gardens. Living more frugally is good advice and hopefully your warning will not come to pass...but good information to have. Always better to be prepared than the alternative.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 06, 2011:

Thanks for your comments, Hello hello and tamron.

tamron on November 05, 2011:

knowledge will be your best friend. I suggest people learn and practice survival skills and frugal living skills.

Canning use to be a hobby of mine. When I had my farm we bartered a lot and generally cared about each other and helped when someone was in need.

Great Hub! Vote Up!

Hello, hello, from London, UK on November 05, 2011:

Wow, that solide and great advice. Thank you.

SweetiePie from Southern California, USA on November 04, 2011:

I am going to be able to keep my tomato plants growing throughout this winter because we get enough sun here in SoCal, although it is cold and rainy today. I am still getting a few tomatoes every week or so, although I was getting a lot more during the peak of summer.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 03, 2011:

You are right Sweetiepie. Hope you got lots of tomatoes this year. I just picked the last of mine-- even green ones, as we are supposed to freeze tonight.

Thanks for commenting.

SweetiePie from Southern California, USA on November 03, 2011:

Knowing how to cook and garden is essential. Thanks for sharing your info her Rochelle!

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 03, 2011:

Many of us have-- Paradise7, but you still have the information in your head. Knowing how to do something is more than half the battle.

Paradise7 from Upstate New York on November 03, 2011:

Interesting and useful, and I'm with you on hoping it never gets that bad. I've left many manual survival skills behind me by many years.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 03, 2011:

I hope it doesn't get that bad, Cardisa, but you never know. I live in the middle of California and have chickens and a garden, too, but I would be unable to feed all the people who don't.

Carolee Samuda from Jamaica on November 03, 2011:

Are we going back to the stone age Rochelle! Grinding grains between I am just kidding, I know these info saves money and we may need them with what's happening in our country. Thank God we have a vegetable garden and thinking of rearing our own chickens.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 03, 2011:

Thank you, habee. I think there is great satisfaction in doing at least some of those things yourself.

.. and thanks for your comment, too, blog8withJ.

blog8withJ on November 03, 2011: helpful.

Holle Abee from Georgia on November 02, 2011:

I have a blog about just these sorts of things! My ex and I were great at "living off the land" - growing and preserving food, hunting, fishing, crabbing, shrimping, gathering, and raising livestock. Enjoyed the read and voted up!

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 02, 2011:

Yes losing your eat source-- or your heat source could be a disaster.

Our wood stove is efficient, and we live on a wooded property.

Water, of course is vital, as well.

I have another hub about winter power outage, and most of the books about country living address the challenges of keeping water and heat available.

Phil Plasma from Montreal, Quebec on November 02, 2011:

Key for me is planning what to do if we lose our eat source - it gets really cold here in the winter. Another thing people may want to consider who come to read this hub is getting a reliable water source or supply.

Great hub voted up and useful.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 02, 2011:

Thank you, too, bookmom. Just knowing that you have some basic information, helps you feel more comfortable.

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 02, 2011:

@ anjperez-- thanx!

@ Brie Hoffman -- I added the link to your 'no refrigerator' which, of course, is on your hot topic list.

@ dr bj -- Living in the wood for a few years has made me more aware of being prepared. If people have the information, they can be ready for whatever.

Thank you all for commenting.

thebookmom from Nebraska on November 02, 2011:

Great Idea to Gather information in an organized notebook. It someone makes the process of research and learning less daunting to think of it in sections of a notebook.

drbj and sherry from south Florida on November 02, 2011:

It's kind of scary, Rochelle, to contemplate a future without all the conveniences we are accustomed to. But like the Boy Scouts, it's good to be prepared. Thanks for these excellent reminders.

Brie Hoffman from Manhattan on November 02, 2011:

Either one would be're the best!

anjperez on November 02, 2011:

nice hub!

Rochelle Frank (author) from California Gold Country on November 02, 2011:

Thank you, Brie. I'll make it a link to your profile (or your no- refrigerator hub) if you don't mind. Tell me what you prefer.

Brie Hoffman from Manhattan on November 02, 2011:

Nice article Rochelle and ehem..thanks for the plug :)

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