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How to Write a Basic Marketing Plan

A former university professor of marketing and communications, Sallie is an independent publisher and marketing communications consultant.

Failure to plan is planning to fail.

Failure to plan is planning to fail.

How to Write a Simple Marketing Plan

Creating a basic, bare-bones marketing plan is simple, but for the uninitiated, it can seem to be a daunting task—even for talented new entrepreneurs and small business owners. However, the old saying, "failure to plan is planning to fail," is true more often than not. For this reason, it's probably a good idea to learn how to create a simple marketing plan if you are now, or you're hoping to one day become, a marketer.

As a marketing consultant and former college marketing professor, I believe the word "plan" simply sounds foreboding. My experience with clients and MBA students leads me to believe that the "planning" of anything tends to conjure up images of hours and hours of intensive, dull, laborious work. But it doesn't have to be that way. Even though it might sound scary, creating a simple marketing plan is not that difficult. It’s something that should always be done before executing marketing activities and before attempting to measure/assess the effectiveness of marketing efforts—both of which are crucial to the ultimate success of any business. A plan will help you improve the chances for success of your marketing activities and the likelihood of achieving your desired results.

The Elements of a Marketing Plan

This article provides a description of the essential elements needed in the marketing planning process and what is needed to create a marketing plan. It offers advice and suggestions to help in the preparation of a simple marketing plan that can be adapted to fit the basic marketing needs of just about any type of business or service.

There are many variations in the format and number of elements included in different marketing plans. This is because each plan is custom-tailored to fit the situation, circumstances, and business/marketing needs of a particular product, service, entrepreneur, or business owner. Still, for our purposes, there are some bare-bones/standard elements that should be included in any marketing plan. These elements include the basic four Ps of the "Marketing Mix," which are product, price, place (distribution channels), and promotion, plus several other related and crucial considerations.

Target Market

Include in your plan a good description of your ideal customer. Make sure your description creates a "living, breathing human" with a name, a personality, a job or income, a lifestyle, and, of course, hopes and dreams. Also, tell how your product or service "fits" into the life/lifestyle of your ideal customer.


Positioning Statement

How would you like your intended customers to think about your product/service versus competitive offerings? Think about what it is that sets your product, service, or business apart from others like it or from your competitors. What is unique about your business, product, or brand versus your direct competitors? You'll probably find a whole list of things that set you apart, and the next questions will help you decide which of these to focus on. Which of these factors is/are most important to your ideal customer? Now, what is one, or several words, you would use to describe how you want your customers to think of your offering?

Benefits You Are Offering

When you create a marketing plan, you must describe the benefits/advantages your customers will receive from using your product or service or from patronizing your business.

What is most important to your ideal customers when they’re buying what you are selling? Are product/service features more important? Or are benefits more important to your ideal customer? For example, after developing a salt that would be free-running even in damp weather, Morton Salt created a unique slogan to advertise their product, "When it rains, it pours." This is a benefit and a feature because salt once clumped together in damp weather. Who wants salt clumping together when it rains? So, customers got the benefit of free-flowing salt, no matter what the weather was like. This benefit was also a "feature" of the product. Other features can be any and all "bells and whistles" that come with a product. Tech gadgets with lots of buttons and flashy stuff designed to make usage (and life) simple and easy are often seen as great features.

Some products (such as cigarettes, liquor, and perfume) sell brands based on emotional, "borrowed values" instead of strictly on product features. Users are encouraged to believe they are getting the "benefits" of intangibles such as sex appeal or a more satisfying/fun lifestyle, perhaps portrayed by a famous or beautiful spokesperson for a particular brand.


Pricing Strategy

Explain what method you will use to price your offering to your ideal customers. After considering the costs of production and marketing expenses, how much will you add in order to make a profit? This determination should ensure that the offering of your product/service brings value to customers while also contributing to the revenue/profitability of your business.

Sales Strategy

Discuss both the methods you will use to achieve sales (sales strategy) and the sales tactics (sales activities) you plan to use. Success in selling is based on the use of effective strategy and tactics. Sales strategy refers to your plan for sales activities: How will you reach your ideal customers? What competitive differences and resources are available for you to use? Tactics include a “nuts and bolts” description of your day-to-day selling activities, such as your sales process, prospecting, and follow-up. Will you be looking to directly reach only your ideal customers? Or will you also be seeking ways to sell to them through other influences (such as membership associations or suppliers)?

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Distribution Strategy

Describe how your offering to ideal customers will be delivered to them—for example, through a retail outlet, online, or through printed material. How will you ensure your product is there for them at the right place and at the right time for purchase? Will you distribute your product through the use of an intermediary (through wholesaler and then retailer), or will you sell directly to the customer?


Service Strategy

As you create your marketing plan, keep in mind that customer service, ultimately, will define any company. Therefore, you need to include a description of how you plan to increase customer "engagement." Providing great service helps companies survive, especially in a tough economy. How will you connect in genuine ways that add value to what you are offering your ideal customer? What practical methods and strategies will you use for the purpose of delivering great service experiences to your ideal customer? Include in your description how you will balance providing great customer service with increasing the cost-effectiveness of your resources.

Promotion Strategy

Use what you know about your ideal customers and how they make buying decisions in order to determine which promotional methods would be most effective in reaching them. Will you be using a "push" or a "pull" strategy?

Pushing involves taking your product directly to the customer (face-to-face direct selling, point-of-sale displays, trade promotions to encourage retail demand) while pulling involves bringing the customer to you (through means such as advertising, word-of-mouth, discounts, etc.). Pull strategies encourage customers to actively seek out your product and retailers to stock it based on consumer demand.

Many new products will utilize a push strategy in the introductory period to create consumer awareness and establish retail channels. Once this is accomplished, a pull strategy might be implemented to ensure steady demand and to keep supply channels in place.


Marketers Must Stay Alert and Tuned In

After the initial product launch, you should do your best to stay aware of your marketing environment. A company’s marketing environment consists of the activities and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management and your ability to build and maintain successful relationships with your ideal customer. Marketers must always be mindful of tracking things such as trends (demographics, culture, customer lifestyle, and so on) and identifying opportunities. That means being cognizant of the interests and moves of competitors, suppliers, and customers, as well as surveying the landscape for political, economic, cultural, or business information with the potential to affect the marketing of your products to your customers.

© 2012 Sallie Beatrice Middlebrook PhD


Sallie Beatrice Middlebrook PhD (author) from Texas, USA on December 28, 2014:

Thank you smcopywrite. I appreciate your visit and your comments. You're absolutely right, and I hope you'll share the article with others. Thanks again.

smcopywrite from all over the web on December 28, 2014:

Wonderful educational info . Thanks for sharing. This is something all freelance writers should be made aware of. A strategy and plan of action get the income rolling in.

Sallie Beatrice Middlebrook PhD (author) from Texas, USA on August 05, 2012:

Thank you so much point2make, for reading my Hub. I'm glad you found it helpful, and I wish you nothing but success in reintroducing your company to your customers. I'll be publishing more Hubs on marketing in the weeks to come, and I hope some of them will be helpful to you as well. Thanks again, so much.

point2make on August 04, 2012:

A very good and helpful hub. Our business is undergoing major changes and has recently recovered from a severe financial crisis. We are in the process of re-introducing ourselves to our customers. Your ideas and information will be very useful to us as we go forward. Thanks for the help. Voted this hub up!

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