Effects of Trauma Work: Similarities in Tasks and Emotional Toll on Workers

Updated on October 29, 2018
janshares profile image

Janis spent 22 years of her career providing mental health services and critical incident stress debriefing to law enforcement officers.

Some professions are surprisingly similar in their function yet different in their descriptions.
Some professions are surprisingly similar in their function yet different in their descriptions. | Source

Police Officers, Counselors and Clergy are Kindred Spirits

Who would think that a police officer would have anything in common with a priest? Similarly, who would ever imagine a therapist having challenges in common with those of a law enforcement officer or a priest? These are unique service professions which require very similar character traits, internal fortitude, stamina, and ethical codes of conduct.

The tolerance levels for the intense emotions they face in crisis situations exceeds that faced by those in other professions. They see and feel a lot, and at times, live inside an internal world of emotional isolation. This internal world is just an example of how police officers, counselors, and clergy mirror each other outside of the obvious differences in job duties, training, and education requirements.

After working in the mental health field for almost three decades, closely aligned with cops and clergy, I have seen surprising similarities in police officers, counselors, and clergy, based on who they are as people and what they encounter in their respective roles. There are unexpected and intriguing overlaps in the challenges they face and to what they are exposed on any given day as they perform their duties.

The purpose of this article is to outline those similarities and illustrate how people who take on these professions are actually more alike than different. Eleven points are discussed, covering three primary areas which include:

  • Impact of job duties and function on personal life (4,6, 8,10)
  • Exposure to crises, traumatic grief, loss, and death (2,5,7,9)
  • Ethical and moral dilemmas faced in the profession (1,3,11)

(Scroll down to the 11 points below for details corresponding to the number noted beside primary areas above.)

Helping Professions: Extreme Demands of a Difficult Job

Who has the most difficult job?

See results

Police Officer

A cop expresses the cumulative effects of his job in his eyes.
A cop expresses the cumulative effects of his job in his eyes. | Source

Certain Trauma Workers are More Alike Than Different

Cops, counselors, and clergy may appear on the surface to be extremely different types of people. But internally and at heart, they have a lot in common.

They obviously require very different training. Their motivations for entering their respective professions are most likely divergent. However, they are more alike than different because:

  1. They keep a lot of secrets and personal confidences.
  2. They are exposed to high intensity emotional situations and traumatic events.
  3. They are challenged by ethical dilemmas, personally and professionally.
  4. They are expected to respond to crises at any time without notice.
  5. They are expected to intervene, remain calm, and problem-solve with a straight face.
  6. They often make sacrifices in their personal care routines in order to uphold job duties and responsibilities.
  7. They suffer from compassion fatigue.
  8. Their partners, spouses, and children often feel neglected by the demands of the job.
  9. They are exposed to an inordinate amount of grief, loss, and death.
  10. They are held to higher standards and not allowed to make mistakes or fall from grace.
  11. They are not always comfortable with socializing in mixed company.

Counselor

A counselor takes in a tremendous amount of emotion expressed by the client during a therapy session.
A counselor takes in a tremendous amount of emotion expressed by the client during a therapy session. | Source

Priest

A priest at the altar prepares to serve communion to his congregants who are in need of healing and spiritual guidance.
A priest at the altar prepares to serve communion to his congregants who are in need of healing and spiritual guidance. | Source

Similarities Among Cops, Counselors and Clergy

1. They keep a lot of secrets and personal confidences -

The secrets police officers, counselors, and clergy keep can be a part of the job function or about their experiences on the job itself. Due to the nature of their jobs, they cannot readily share information or "vent" about what they hear or see. This can leave a heavy burden on the psyche with no outlet.

It is expected that they will keep the confidences of those who come to them for help, vowing to keep very sensitive information confidential. This loyalty can extend to the organization as well, where the expectation is to "never air the dirty laundry."

Typical examples of maintaining confidentiality are when the priest offers confession to the professed sinner or when the therapist provides the safety of a private office for the conflicted client to freely open up and receive support.

But, as mentioned, there are times when the secrets are about the subcultures within the profession itself. For cops, it's referred to as "The Thin Blue Line." There is a certain amount of "shop talk" among colleagues in the respective professions that is kept in-house.

However, a vast majority is kept to oneself, making for a lonely and isolating existence within a unique profession. Secrets may involve missteps, self-doubt, internal role conflicts, ethical dilemmas, or falls from high pedestals.

These are just a few examples of the unspoken challenges that create a sea of secrets kept by cops, therapists, and men and women of the cloth.

Police Academy Class - Eager and Ready to Protect and Serve

The Metropolitan Police Department in Washington, DC - Idealistic police cadets have no idea of the impact the law enforcement profession will have on their personal lives.
The Metropolitan Police Department in Washington, DC - Idealistic police cadets have no idea of the impact the law enforcement profession will have on their personal lives. | Source

2. They are exposed to high intensity emotional situations and traumatic events - Police officers witness the after-effects of a murder on the violent streets of an urban area; a crisis counselor may be requested to help the family deal with the reality of a violent murder of a loved one; a minister or priest may assist with a death notification at the hospital. This scenario presents an emotionally intense situation that has become the "norm" in big cities and even small towns where traumatic deaths happen regularly.

Police officers, counselors, and clergy are often exposed to traumatic events on a regular basis that culminate over time into more trauma on average than that faced by persons in 9 to 5 "crisis-free" jobs. Dealing with the intensity of human suffering is not the norm for most people but becomes the norm in these trauma work professions.

Stress Management for Cops

3. They are challenged with ethical dilemmas, personally and professionally -

Police officers, counselors, and clergy carry out their duties within prescribed guidelines and standards. Their behaviors are dictated by codes of ethics which can create dilemmas requiring the use of judgment in making decisions.

At times, these codes and standards come into conflict with the ability to "do the right thing" or make the best or most appropriate decision.

Unique circumstances, coupled with one's own belief system, may cause a police officer or a therapist to make compromises with those respective standards.

Similarly, a priest may fall short of upholding moral and ethical codes due to personal weaknesses.

Codes of Conduct for Trauma Work Professionals

Clergy: "Deacons must be likewise dignified, not double-tongued, not addicted to much wine, not greedy for dishonest gain. They must hold the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience." 1 Timothy 3:8-9 (ESV)

Counselors: "Professional counselors behave in an ethical and legal manner. They are aware that client welfare and trust in the profession depend on a high level of professional conduct." American Counseling Association, 2014 Code of Ethics, Section I, Resolving Ethical Issues

Police Officers: "I will never betray my badge, my integrity, my character, or the public trust." Excerpt from Law Enforcement Oath of Honor, International Chiefs of Police

Police Badge

The badge is symbolic of job function and role, identifying the law enforcement officer as legit.
The badge is symbolic of job function and role, identifying the law enforcement officer as legit. | Source

4. They are expected to respond to crises at any time without notice - Every call received by a police officer is a potential crisis. When that 911 call is dispatched, the officer doesn't always know what to expect. Special units are also on-call to respond to an emergency.

However, during the September 11th terrorist attack, every cop in every jurisdiction across the United States, responded to that crisis whether they were on duty or not. This massive and unprecedented response also included crisis response teams of counselors and chaplains whose duty it is to show up and support victims and first responders, without notice.

5. They are expected to intervene, problem-solve, and remain calm, with a straight face - Police officers, counselors, and clergy are confronted with some of the most difficult situations and are expected to fix it. Police officers often feel as if they are wearing more than one hat as mediator, social worker, and mentor as they try to solve problems in addition to enforcing the law.

Ministers often find themselves in a predicament as they are presented with marital conflict to resolve instead of imparting spiritual counsel. These situations can become emotionally charged, putting the officer, counselor, or minister in positions of keeping their emotions intact as they carry out their duties and find solutions.

Clergy Collar

A clergy collar defines the job function and role.
A clergy collar defines the job function and role. | Source

Female Police Officer

A female officer struggles with role conflict as she balances job duties and family responsibilities in a male-dominant profession.
A female officer struggles with role conflict as she balances job duties and family responsibilities in a male-dominant profession. | Source

6. They often make sacrifices in personal care routines in order to uphold job duties - Police officers, counselors, and clergy sacrifice a great deal of their own self-care and routines for good health maintenance in exchange for maintaining a high level of commitment to their jobs. For the most part, it's not about choice but about dedication and duty. They can fall short of getting proper nutrition, adequate sleep, and physical exercise to ensure good health and physical stamina. Being overly dedicated and obligated to the job can take its toll where these trauma professionals unknowingly sacrifice there emotional and physical health.

7. They suffer from compassion fatigue - Compassion fatigue is defined as the end result of being exposed to too much stress and trauma, internalizing it, and then developing apathy for the victims and for the work. To an extent, police officers, counselors, and clergy must keep a safe emotional distance from those they help in order to maintain objectivity and provide professional service. But when that distance is extended beyond one's ability to care and empathize, this is referred to as "burnout" or compassion fatigue.

Not all trauma work professionals suffer from this phenomenon but all are susceptible to it if they are not taking care of themselves through, breaks, vacations, training, supervision, and, if necessary, mental health counseling. Because of the direct services rendered to people in need, coupled with the emotional impact the encounters can have, police officers, counselors, and clergy, are more prone than other service workers (except maybe for emergency room personnel and EMTs) to suffer from burnout or compassion fatigue. It is vital for this special group of trauma worker professionals to step away, gain a new perspective, rejuvenate, and renew their commitment to job satisfaction and fulfillment.

8. Their partners, spouses, and children often feel neglected by the demands of the job - Family members of police officers, counselors, and clergy constantly make adjustments to feeling neglected when the job comes first in the family household. Due to the service nature of their jobs, personal and family life often revolves around the job as priority. It is an oath, a pledge, or a vow that is taken to serve, where the family also agrees by default to make sacrifices.

It is not uncommon for a special family occasion to be missed by a police officer because of shift work. A counselor on-call will unfortunately have to bow out of a holiday dinner with the family to cover for the agency. And the minister of the church is always at the ready to leave the family to tend to an ill member at an emergency room. It is an expectation of the trauma worker's family that, at times, when duty calls, they are not the priority.

9. They are exposed to an inordinate amount of grief, loss, and death - Although the primary function of a police officer is to enforce the law, they usually arrive to a scene after the crime has occurred. They see the aftermath and human suffering created by violent assaults, accidents, natural disasters, and homicide. They are often the first responders to interact with distraught family members and inquisitive bystanders.

The same applies to counselors and clergy whose function it is to be there for the family who is grieving the loss of a loved one. A priest has to conduct funerals and burials for numerous decedents, some of whom he had close relationships and worked with for years. Over the course of a career, police officers, counselors, and clergy come in contact with countless instances of grief, loss, and death.

A Counselor's Office

A counselor provides a safe and comfortable space for clients to share personal issues, conflicts, and traumatic losses.
A counselor provides a safe and comfortable space for clients to share personal issues, conflicts, and traumatic losses. | Source

Burnout in the Trauma Professions: Compassion Fatigue

10. They are held to higher standards and not allowed to make mistakes or fall from grace - Police officers are law enforcers who are expected to be almost superhuman. They are not allowed to make mistakes in their professional roles or in their personal lives. And if they do, even if it's an honest mistake, or fall from grace, there are consequences. The same holds for counselors and clergy. Because of the public trust and high expectations we have for these unique professions, we hold officers, counselors and clergy to much higher standards of performance and character than we do for those in other professions.

An account or store clerk can enjoy a night of bar hopping to a point of public intoxication without fear of being judged or losing his job. But a counselor's conduct is a huge part of what builds a professional reputation which translates into believability and trust. A minister's moral character is always measured by his conduct which is vital to his congregation's ability to trust him and believe in the faith he preaches.

Excessive drinking habits, DUIs, alcoholism, domestic violence, child abuse, infidelity, and drug addiction are challenges faced everyday by many who fall from grace. But when these offenses are committed by those from whom we expect more impulse control, mental and emotional stability, and adherence to moral standards, it's more difficult for us to accept and forgive. It's easy to forget that they are human, too, with the same frailties and vulnerabilities as anyone else.

Stress Management for Clergy

11. They are not always comfortable with socializing in mixed company - It's sometimes difficult for police officers, counselors, and clergy to feel as if they can leave the professional roles assigned to them "at the office." Even in social situations, it is perceived that they are still in those respective roles as they are met with glances, and even questions about what they do. Because there is either a fascination with them or an avoidance of them, being in mixed company can be awkward and uncomfortable.

The ethical issue of dual relationships is a challenge which arises in the helping professions. It involves the need to maintain social distance from those with whom the helping professional has a work-related relationship. The dilemma presents itself in unexpected situations outside the environment within which the professional service is rendered.

The most common situations are social in nature wherein it is the responsibility of the professional to avoid the social setting if possible. A police officer would rather avoid a gathering where she may run into a known suspect or someone she has arrested in the past. A counselor would rather not get an update on a client's divorce when they are attending a cocktail party of a mutual friend. There are times when the opposite can occur, for example, for a priest in mixed company where others are hesitant to let their guards down for fear of offending a man of the cloth. Therefore, socializing in mixed company presents unique challenges, on several levels, to the police officer, the counselor and to clergy.

Trauma Work Professions: Summary

The purpose of this article was to illustrate how some professions, which can look so different on the surface, can actually be more alike than different due to the nature of the job and the impact it has on the people who choose those professions. Police officers, counselors, and clergy are exposed to a lot of stress and are heavily involved in trauma work which affects their personal lives in very similar ways. During a major crisis or traumatic event, it is not uncommon for them to work in close proximity to each other as they are exposed to the same types of stress.

It is hoped that this information will expand public knowledge about and compassion for what police officers, counselors, and clergy deal with in their respective professions. Furthermore, it is hoped that these three categories of trauma work professionals will gain more understanding of and appreciation for the connections they share as kindred spirits whose mission it is to make a difference in the lives of the people they encounter in their lines of work.

For more information on the impact of trauma work, trauma survivors, post-traumatic stress, and compassion fatigue, visit Gift From Within.


[Janis Leslie Evans, M.Ed., N.C.C., L.P.C. is a licensed professional counselor in private practice in Washington, DC. Her career experiences include over 20 years of providing mental health services and critical incident stress debriefing to law enforcement officers and their families.]

Questions & Answers

    © 2014 Janis Leslie Evans

    Comments

      0 of 8192 characters used
      Post Comment

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        3 years ago from Washington, DC

        You are quite welcome, Dr Billy. I'm so pleased that you found it helpful for those in the trauma professions. I hope it gets to more of them. Thank you for stopping by.

      • Dr Billy Kidd profile image

        Dr Billy Kidd 

        3 years ago from Sydney, Australia

        janshares, this is an important article for pastors, counselors, and police officers to read!

        I tell religious leaders that we are in the same business.

        My friend, a reverend, had a gang shooting outside his church on his first day on the job in Central LA. He does a lot of funerals, helping people with their grief.

        All these professionals must fight burnout. Police assigned to homicide detail usually cannot handle it for more than a year.

        Thanks for the insights.

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        Thank you for your comments, mdscoggins. I've had those uncomfortable conversations, too, where I just want to say, "can we talk about how good this turkey tastes?" I'm glad to have someone who understands. I appreciate the vote up and the share.

      • mdscoggins profile image

        Michelle Scoggins 

        4 years ago from Fresno, CA

        Great article. I agree that these professionals share a lot of the same qualities and responsibilities. I totally agree when you mention that it is difficult to be in mixed company. As a therapist myself being around the general public and especially family conversations can be strange or strained. Like you mentioned either to be idolized or avoided leaves you feeling unsure. Thanks for sharing. Voted up and shared.

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        Hi Faith Reaper, always good to see you. Thanks for reading and commenting on this article. It is close to my heart as I have experienced a lot of this firsthand with colleagues and in my own profession. I appreciate the compassion and blessing. Oh, and thanks for the congrats!

      • Faith Reaper profile image

        Faith Reaper 

        4 years ago from southern USA

        Great insight you have shared here, Jan, in all of the varied professionals, although they do experience similar difficulties as you have discussed. Much respect to all those in these careers.

        Congrats on your Hubbie Award!

        God bless

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        I appreciate that, Ron. Glad it peeked your interest and thoughts about what you do. Thank you for visiting and reading.

      • RonElFran profile image

        Ronald E Franklin 

        4 years ago from Mechanicsburg, PA

        This is a really great piece, Jan. Even though I'm involved in one of the professions you analyze, I never thought of the commonalities between them. You put a lot of thought into this. Good job.

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        Thank you, DDE.

      • DDE profile image

        Devika Primić 

        4 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

        Great insights here and most informative on this topic.

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        That's so good to know, MsDora. That was my mission. This hub has been in my head for years. I'm glad I finally got it down on paper, so to speak. Thank you for your visit and comments. I appreciate the vote.

      • MsDora profile image

        Dora Weithers 

        4 years ago from The Caribbean

        Jan, thanks for sharing these insights. You make us take a more detailed look at the great contribution these professionals make to our lives, and the stressful toll they all endure. My appreciation is heightened. Great job and voted up!

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        You're welcome, md, I know you understand from experience. Thank you very much for reading and commenting.

      • mdgardner profile image

        Martin D Gardner 

        4 years ago from Virginia Beach

        Great hub Jan! I think I have experience every one of these at some point as a mental health professional. In my case, I'm often working with the police and couldn't imagine dealing with that kind of stress. Thanks for sharing.

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        Glad you enjoyed it, lesliebyars, and that it let you see your own profession differently. Thank you for stopping by to read it and comment. I appreciate the votes.

      • profile image

        lesliebyars 

        4 years ago

        I really enjoyed reading your hub. I work in the medical field and I can see the similarities now between these professions that I didn't see before.

        I bet you have seen the mental health field change drastically over the years.

        Thank you for sharing great hub, great read. I voted up useful and awesome.

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        Wow, thanks, prospectboy, for these great comments. I'm so pleased with the effect it had on you. Thank you for stopping by.

      • prospectboy profile image

        Bradrick H. 

        4 years ago from Texas

        Hey there Ms. Jan! This is truly another one of your amazing pieces of writing that is thoroughly broken down to where it makes the reader think. I always thought that teachers had the toughest jobs out there, but I'm not so sure now. Reading point number 11 made me think of a situation I was in years ago when I was in the house of a man who was a cop by profession. It's amazing how the three different professions you brought up are similar in the potential effects they have on those individuals. Reading this really helped to expand my mind. Great, great writing my friend. Voted up, rated interesting, shared, tweeted!

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        I'm so glad you came by to comment on this hub, word55. Your sharing of your experience means a lot because you can relate on so many levels as a veteran public servant. You truly do speak the truth about rising about it all, no matter how stressful. You are so right about upholding professionalism to get the job done. Thank you for your valuable comments.

      • word55 profile image

        Al Wordlaw 

        4 years ago from Chicago

        Hi Jan, you covered all brands :-) of professionalism. After training to serve the public in various capacities we should inherit extra heart to deal with tragedies with love to persevere. Extensive training helps one become a special breed. As a 22 year veteran of a fire department, I understand and appreciate your article. However, we must be held to professional standards to successfully deal with preserving the lives and liberty of people (and property for firemen). I suppose it is tough being in those professions that you specified. But of all my years in the department, 9/11/01 was the toughest day for me... Professionalism helps us to endure because in the end it's the lives you save that counts, no matter how stressful the job may become. Somebody must do it. I thank you for an article well done.

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        Hi Brie, you're welcome. Thanks for reading it.

      • Brie Hoffman profile image

        Brie Hoffman 

        4 years ago from Manhattan

        I never thought about this..thanks for bringing this to my attention.

      • janshares profile imageAUTHOR

        Janis Leslie Evans 

        4 years ago from Washington, DC

        Thank you, Bill. Love the word "parallels." I should have thought of using it in this hub. :) I appreciate your visit.

      • billybuc profile image

        Bill Holland 

        4 years ago from Olympia, WA

        Very nice job, Jan, showing the parallels between three professions I would never want to be a part of...bravo to them all.

      working

      This website uses cookies

      As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, toughnickel.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

      For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://toughnickel.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

      Show Details
      Necessary
      HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
      LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
      Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
      AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
      HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
      Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
      CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
      Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
      Features
      Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
      Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
      Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
      PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
      MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
      Marketing
      Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
      Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
      Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
      Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
      Statistics
      Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
      ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
      Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)