HR is a wonderful thing, but in the end, one always has to deal with abusers in one way or other. One must come to terms with their own feelings regarding the abuse. In the case of verbal abuse, one can choose not to take what is said to heart. In reacting with sadness or anger, we play into the abuser's hand. If we can learn not to react, we remove some of whatever it is the abuser is getting out of the deal, but more importantly we learn that what they say really does not matter to us, so cannot hurt us.
But aside from choosing inner peace, there are things to be done. If your boss has a boss, it might be risky, but perhaps your boss's boss can help. Another risky, but the possibly beneficial action would be to look for allies at work. If a group of employees protests, it carries a lot more weight. What if you all quit at the same time?
You could see a mental health professional. You could meet with an attorney to see if your boss's behavior is violating the law or your civil rights.
And of course, you can confront your boss yourself. Perhaps your boss does not realize the damage s/he is doing. Perhaps, like most bullies, they just need someone to stand up to them. Or maybe they'll fire you on the spot.
In the end, the thing you must decide is whether the job is worth the verbal abuse. If it is, your only choice may be to learn to suffer less with it. If not, then your only choice may be to find another job.