Kerry loves to write about gardening, nutrition, and sustainability.
Raising Bison: Tips for Beginners
Bison is the fastest growing meat market in the United States today—more and more consumers are discovering the delicious taste and many health and environmental benefits of bison meat.
Bison also offer many benefits to ranchers. Due to their wild natures, they thrive best on minimal handling. They are hardier, more resistant to disease, and enjoy a longer lifespan than cattle. In general, bison cows have fewer birthing problems and are better mothers. Bison graze more efficiently than cattle and are better winter foragers, requiring less supplemental feeding.
Here are some things to think about if you're considering getting started in raising bison.
In This Article
- Bison Ranching Facilities
- Bison Pasture Management
- Handling Bison
- Marketing Bison Meat
Bison Ranching Facilities
One of the most common causes of failure in the bison industry is a lack of proper facilities.
Tall, strong exterior fencing is an absolute requirement before bringing a bison home. Full-grown bison bulls weigh up to 2,000 pounds yet can jump 5–6 feet from a standstill and may push or rub against fences and posts.
The Texas Bison Association recommends seven-foot posts with high tensile wire. Fences in areas where the bison will be worked should be tall, sturdy, and easy to climb for the safety of human handlers.
Stocking and Management
Just as important as good fencing is good stocking and management practices. A bison that gets it into its head to leave is a large and powerful enough animal that it might just find a way. With good pasture, water, and room to roam, bison are much more likely to stay put, and content bison are also less likely than cattle to "worry" a fence.
Bison Pasture Management
Bison can be stocked at about the same rate as cattle, even at slightly higher rates, because they are more efficient grazers. Bison spread out more evenly over pasture than cattle and can survive on a marginal range that would starve cattle, though, in the interest of producing the finest product, this is not recommended.
Bison are happiest in large spaces. In the wild, bison move about two miles per day to graze. (One square mile is 640 acres.) On a smaller acreage, bison can be kept happy through pasture rotation. The easiest way to move them is to open up the gates and let them move themselves.
Ideally, the minimum herd size for bison should be about 12–15 animals due to their extremely strong herding instinct. A lone bison will jump or tear down fences to get to other bison, cattle, horses, or even sheep to satisfy its need for a herd.
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Bison are wild animals and should be handled as little as possible, both for their own safety and that of their handlers.
Bison might appear large and slow, even cuddly, but in fact, they are capable of sustaining speeds of 35–40 miles per hour for several miles, can jump 5–6 feet in the air from a standstill, and can change directions from both their front and hindquarters. They are very fast and agile, and they're capable of trampling or goring a human being if distressed or angered.
Most bison ranchers use low-stress handling techniques when the animals are at pasture. The National Bison Association recommends Moving 'Em: A Guide to Low Stress Animal Handling as a useful resource for bison ranchers.
When bison absolutely must be handled, experienced bison ranchers recommend tall, sturdy fences that are easy for humans to climb. Separate individual animals from the herd as little as possible (separation can cause them to panic) and work bison slower and calmer than you would cattle or other livestock. Most importantly, always be prepared for surprises.
Marketing Bison Meat
The bison market is growing fast, but the primary consumers of bison meat continue to be gourmets, health food enthusiasts, and natural foods enthusiasts (with considerable overlap between the three groups). Another market is found in Western enthusiasts and tourists.
Health Benefits of Bison Meat
For health and natural food enthusiasts, the appeal of bison is primarily in its health benefits. Bison meat is low in fat and cholesterol but extremely nutrient-dense, with high levels of iron, protein, healthy omega-3 fatty acids, and various vitamins and minerals.
Because it is often naturally raised, organic, and primarily or exclusively grass-fed, natural foods enthusiasts and "compassionate carnivores" have also embraced bison as a healthy, humane, sustainable alternative to conventionally raised beef and other meats, with their high levels of antibiotics, hormones, and chemical pesticides, and inhumane animal handling practices.
If you produce exclusively grass-fed bison meat, consider giving your marketing a boost with sustainable and ethical foodies by becoming an American Grassfed Association certified producer.
"Hands-on" Marketing Approaches
Western enthusiasts are often interested in the experience of the West more than the bison themselves and may appreciate a more "hands-on" approach to marketing. Bison chuckwagon cookouts are popular at many parks and private ranches and also provide an opportunity to introduce the casual consumer or tourist to the delicious taste of bison.
Hunting enthusiasts enjoy the opportunity to participate in a hunt, especially if they get to take home the meat, hide, skull, horns, etc., afterward. Western enthusiasts, in general, are more likely than other groups to be interested in purchasing hides, skulls, and other by-products, whether or not they shot the animal themselves.
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.
© 2008 kerryg
Cathy Ann Fallon Eddy on August 03, 2020:
It's actually a question about Bison. How many areas would I need to raise 12 to 15 Bison? What do you construct the fences with?
Donald J. Trump on October 22, 2019:
i plan to make US the biggest state in america FOR BULL RIDING im not going to build wall anymore
-Donald J. TRUMP
Robert Hacker on October 09, 2019:
I plan on opening 100 acres up to run Bison on and when they produce enough animals due a limited hunt. But how many head can exist on an open 100 acres?
Buffalo Bill on January 02, 2018:
@andy. The main reason is probably because their fencing has to be totally replaced with expensive, heavy duty fencing. That, and the fact that handling the animals is more dangerous. They don't have to be handled as much, but when they do, you need handlers that are experienced and know what they are doing. Starting a small operation wouldn't be too difficult, but a big outfit would be a major undertaking.
andy on December 26, 2013:
Add Your Commenthere has to be a down side. I've often wondered why cattle ranchers don't just switch to bison. Healthier meat, better grazers, they winter better, more per acre? There has to be a reason they haven't switched. What is it?t...
ginsengmama on July 07, 2009:
we currently run our bison and cattle together in the same pasture, can we add a horse to the mix?
Joanie Ruppel from Texas on February 19, 2009:
I've has bison meat, as my brother in law used to raise a few. I found it to be just as good as regular beef, and wish he still raised them.
pgrundy on November 23, 2008:
This is great! Thank you for all this good info. I would REALLY like to see these animals return in large numbers and even replace cattle. It's good to see someone so enthusiastic about them.
kerryg (author) from USA on April 16, 2008:
John Lumberjack - I love it! It's similar to beef, but sweeter and (I think) richer. The only thing you have to watch out for is that the fat content is lower, so you can't cook it exactly like beef, you usually have to go more "low and slow".
I have another hub that focuses on bison meat and its nutritional benefits here: https://hubpages.com/hub/bison
I hear there's even a herd in Hawaii, though I haven't been able to find information about it online. Failing that, there are many vendors in the lower 48 who can ship there.
John Lumberjack from Honolulu on April 16, 2008:
I want to taste bison meat. Interesting is it good?
Angela Harris from Around the USA on April 16, 2008:
Very interesting. I just returned from a trip to Texas and was talking to my husband about raising bison. Thanks for an excellent introduction to the topic.
Sherri from Southeastern Pennsylvania on March 29, 2008:
Kerryg, here's another recent resource regarding "Why buffalo can't roam," from National Public Radio, February 25, that you might want to add to your links list here or elsewhere (if you haven't already):
Keep these excellent hubs coming!
kerryg (author) from USA on March 17, 2008:
Gottsch, there are too many factors involved to give a general answer about stocking rates. It depends on where you live, what condition your range is in, what grazing system you use, how old your bison are, the number of pregnant and nursing cows you have, and many other factors.
It's generally recommended that you start by stocking about the same number of bison as you would cows in a pasture; then, as you grow more familiar with your bison and their grazing habits and needs, you can usually increase the rate somewhat, because bison are more efficient grazers than cattle.
You might find the following organizations helpful:
Gottsch on March 17, 2008:
In the "Pasture" section, is there a recommendation for herd size matched with pasture size?